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Infertility is not a disease,
it is just a condition that is treatable
Consult us! If you are going through any Condition.
Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive within 12 months. For women who are older than 35 years of age, this timeframe decreases to 6 months, and women above 40 should consult their doctor immediately. As shown in the graph, the fertility rate in India has declined from 1880 to 2020. According to a medical study, the total fertility rate (TFR) in India is projected to decrease to 1.29 births per woman by the year 2100, compared to 2.14 births per woman in 2017.
Infertility can be caused by problems in either the male or female reproductive system, or both. Globally, approximately 1 in 3 men and 1 in 3 women experience issues with their reproductive system. In women, fertility can be classified as either primary, when a woman is unable to conceive at all after 2 years of trying, or secondary, when a woman is unable to conceive again after having one successful pregnancy.
Male infertility can be due to low number of sperms, defects in the quality of the sperm, or a blockage that prevents the sperm to be released. Some of the causes are listed below:
Enlarged veins (varicocele) in the scrotum
High heat exposure due to tight clothing, hot tubs, or sauna,
Injury to the reproductive organs
Genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis
Heavy use of alcohol, smoking, or drugs
Cancer treatments including radiation and chemotherapy.
Blockage of the fallopian Tubes
Uterine problems such as uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, endometriosis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), ovarian cysts
Past ectopic pregnancy
Cancer treatments including radiation and chemotherapy
Asherman syndrome (scarring of the uterine cavity)
History and physical examination
Your doctor will ask you questions about your menstrual cycle, intercourse, prior pregnancies, family history of infertility or any birth-related issues, any other medical conditions, prior surgeries, etc.
Your doctor may also perform a pelvic exam or pap smear (cells from the cervix or vagina are taken and examined for cervical cancer)
The doctor inserts an ultrasound wand inside the vagina and examines the structure of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
Blood tests are used to measure the hormone levels of estradiol and FSH (related to ovarian function and overall egg numbers); TSH (for thyroid function); and prolactin, (increased levels can affect menstrual function)
This test detects the blockage in the fallopian tubes or fibroids or polyps in the uterus. A dye is injected into the reproductive system and its path is captured through x-ray. A lot of structural abnormalities can be corrected by surgery.
Semen analysis Semen analysis of the male partner is done to evaluate:
- Semen volume
- Sperm concentration
- Sperm motility or movement
- Shape of the sperm
The choice of treatment depends on the reason for and duration of infertility, age, and personal preferences. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is defined as any infertility treatment in which the either the eggs or embryos are handled.
They do NOT include treatments in which only sperm are handled or when a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without removing the eggs. ART procedures include:
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
Third party-assisted ART including egg, sperm, and embryo donation and surrogacy.