The sperms are produced in the testis but to a blockage in the epididymis or the vas deferens, they cannot get out. Non-obstructive azoospermia: The sperms are either not produced at all in the testis or are produced in such low levels as to be practically negligible in the ejaculate.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) and Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) techniques are used in cases of azoospermia. In PESA, the sperm are extracted from the epididymis and in TESA, the sperm are extracted from of the tubules in the testis. These methods can be used to diagnose the cause of azoospermia and to isolate sperm to be used in assisted reproductive techniques (ART).
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